Sparta and Olympia

By Brielle Smith and Alexandra Farnsworth

Period 2 Mr. Jackoboice


About the authors:
Brielle Charisse Smith. I live in Nashville, and I was Born in Centennial Hospital on June 26, 1996. I enjoy playing basketball, volleyball, and softball. Kathryn Alexandra Farnsworth. I live in Nashville,and I was born in Centennial Hospital on December 12, 1995. I enjoy playing golf and hanging out with friends.

Government: First of all, the Spartans have a government that is an oligarchy, monarchy, and democracy. It had two kings, which made it somewhat of an oligarchy, and they were from different families, but when they died, the next person from their family would rule. It also had some democratic characteristics because the Spartans were the last vote in the government, but they did atleast have a say in things. The two kings did not have full power. They would talk with each other, and they would have an equal say in things, but they would have to confer with the council of elders, or the gerousia. The gerousia consists of 28 males over the age of 60. When they are elected, they are there to serve for life. The apella is the next lowest government level, and this consists of males over 30 years old, and they are elected to vote on things that start in the gerousia. All the ideas that start in the geurosia must go through that apella before they are officially a part of the Spartan's government. The ephors are the next lowest government level and this consists of five people who complete the government's checks and balances. These are Spartans over 30 years old and they serve on one year's terms.

Sites: http://www.beechmontcrest.com/spartan_government.htm ; http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/governmen1/a/aa070699_govt.htm

Religion:The Spartans have a group named the Agamoi. This was a group of men that had not produced sons as the state required. This group was secluded from a big festival because it was thought to downplay any homosexual tendencies they had. They danced at the festival and it could be very cold and they sang about their punishment. When a king died in Sparta a horseman traveled around informing the people. The women went around beating a cauldron, and men and women were put on signs of defilement and suffered great consequences if they didn't. They believed that religion was putting their gods into their everyday life. There were several other gods they worshiped.
sites:http://webspace.webring.com/people/gh/halorencz/religion.html http://www.megaessays.com/viewpaper/15314.html

Economy: The Spartan Economy did not have that much trade because they had such an inland location, so their economy relied on agriculture heavily. They mostly farmed wine and olive oil, but they did have some ports in their coastal territories where they traded internationally. Here, they imported lumber, metal, and wheat and exported their wine and olive oil. All the spartan men were soldiers, and other men were slaves. They could not live without their slaves because there is a lot of hard work at their farms. The two kings could wage war at any time against any one so all the male citizens had to be ready to fight at any point in time.

Sites: http://www.fjkluth.com/sparta.html#Econ ; http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_did_Spartan_economy_work

Art and Archetecture: Sparta was distinguished by its early democracy and prosperity. When the Persians came they destroyed all the older temples. Sparta did have buildings and temples, but they were greatly admired in there own time. The most famous or well known were the Menelaion and Amyklaion. The Persian Stoa was built after the Persian victory in the 5th century. During the Sparta Golden Age from 650 B.C. to 550 B.C. The artistic achievements were known throughout the world. Their cultural centers were in Olypia and Delphi. Spartans produced high quality in gold during this time period. Some of there art still exist today.
sites: http://elysiumgates.com/~helena/Art.html

Science and Technology: In Sparta, there were not many scientific or technological discoveries made, but there were a few. The Spartans were great warriors, so on their coastal territories they made lots of boats with different sails, which was pretty expensive. On their inland territories, they had the invention of catapults to throw things at their enemies. Also, the building of their wall around the city was a huge technological score because it kept all of their enemies out of their city.

sites: http://fubini.swarthmore.edu/~ENVS2/S2003/Tina/athensandsparta.html

Education:When boys were seven years they left their homes and entered the public educational system. The goal was to produce an military system that would teach the boy at an early age. Each boy was assigned to a group called an agela. Their teachers were military and gymnastic coaches. The goal was to produce men that were physically fit and disciplined.
sites:http://www.csupomona.edu/~plin/ls201/greece4.html

Social/Cultural Values: Sparta had the absolute opposite values of the Athens. There culture was both like Athens and not like Athens. They required military service for basically there whole life. They were excluded from the helots and perioski. Only the male spartans were allowed in this type of training. A male child was taken from there mother possibly until the age of 30.
sites: http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/aegean/culture/spartaculture.html

Lingering Questions: How was the education of this culture different from others?
How is Sparta known today?
Are the methods of this culture still used today?


Olympia- 10 Facts:
1. The first Olympic Games was held here in 776 BC, but didn't get really popular until 576 BC.
2. The first games included foot racing, wrestling, discus, javelin, long jump, and horse racing.
3. Slaves and women were permitted from going to the games. If any women were caught at the games, they were thrown off a cliff, but women were allowed to compete. But this still shows that their society was very sexist.
4. If an athlete was caught cheating at the games, they had to buy a statue of Zeus, and their family's name would be put on it plus what he did to cheat.
5. Olympia was the home of the god Zeus.
6. The Olympians believed in many gods, but Zeus was the main god that had power over all the others.
7. This group had 13 plus gods.
8. Their clothing was designed to show the social status of its wearer.
9.They had over 10 different types weapons.
10.The rulers were usually following a family line.

Sites: http://www.greecetravel.com/olympia/ ; http://www.in2greece.com/english/places/historical/mainland/olympia.htm http://www.roman-colosseum.info/roman-emperors/index.htm

Conclusion:
Ensworth is similar and different to Sparta and Olympia in many different ways. Ensworth is like Sparta because Ensworth and Sparta both have governments with lots of different legislations and levels, and Sparta put a lot of emphasis on their Art and Architecture, and so does Ensworth. Another similarity is that Sparta traded a lot, and Ensworth gets their food and school supplies from other places, they don't make it on their own. Sparta and Ensworth are different because Ensworth is coeducational and men and women are equal, and in Sparta only men go to school and men are better than women. Another difference is that Sparta focuses on religion a lot, and Ensworth doesn't have a religion. The one main similarity between Ensworth and Olympia is that Ensworth and Olympia both put a lot of emphasis on sports. Olympia held the first Olympic games, and Ensworth has a ton of sports teams and events. A couple differences are that Olympia is very sexist, and Ensworth is not. Also, Olympians believed in many gods, and Ensworth doesn't have a religion.

Photos:

spartan-marketplace.jpg
spartan marketplace
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Spartan Canal
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culture

zeustempleback200.jpg
olympian
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roman gods