Sparta and Olympia Wiki Page

Created by: Chandler Galvez & Matthew Connor

Chandler and Matthew are both students at Ensworth High School, both currently in the ninth grade. Chandler and

Matthew are in Mr. Jackoboice's world studies history class.

Sparta was a city-state in Southern Greece. They were the main rival city-state of Athens.

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Government

Sparta had what many people believed to be an idea form of government. They had a very strong sense of community, good laws and order, and extremely strong military power. Sparta had a unique form of government with dual kingship. Sparta's constitution was called the "Great Rhetra" which is known as the first written constitution. A problem with their government however, was that the society was controlled so tightly that people had little free time for arts or literature. At around 500 B.C their government came to a standstill and eventually fell.

Religion:

In Sparta, everyone was included as a community, in a community. They came together to praise their gods within their institutions. The mystical Spartan twins Dioscuri Castor and Pollux were a major part in their religion. Other gods they worshiped were Apollo Larneios, Apollo Chalkioikos, Helen, Leucippide, and Lykourgos. Surprisingly, the Spartans did not worship the original Greek gods, such as Zeus, Poseidon, and Hephaestus. Along with these gods, the god of wine, Dionysus was not worshiped by the Spartans because they did not drink wine, for they thought that in order to be a good warrior, they must stay sober. The Spartans also were very obedient to the gods.

Economics:

Sparta was, for the most part, a society that depended greatly on agriculture because it was an inland society. Sparta's exports included wine, oil, etc. Their main inports are any type of metal, lumber, and wheat. The citizen men were warriors. the other men in their community were slaves, or outlanders that came to trade, visit, or commerce. Sparta was ruled by a king, so this position was hereditary, which means you were born into it. The king had the power to call war on anyone of their choosing, but they were responsible for anything that happened during the war.

Art & Architecture

Many people believe that Sparta was only concerned with their military power, and didn't care about things such as art and architecture, but this is not true. Sparta was also well known for their music and dance, as well as their sculptures and bronze works which were sometimes given as gifts. Bronze sculptures were usually very elaborate, and could be made from things such as Bronze, Ivory, and Terracotta. Sparta's largest period of art was between 650 and 550 B.C. During this time Spartas art was known throughout the world.

Science & Technology

Most of the technology in Sparta had to do with their military. The armor consisted of spears, short swords, bronze helmets and shields with a V shaped symbol on them, and leather skins. The military tactic they used was called the phalanx, and their warriors were called hoplites. The Spartans also had ships such as the Trireme which could be used for ramming, or delivering soldiers in shallow water. It is believed that they also had "Greek Fire" which was a type of bomb like weapon that could be used to set other things such as buildings or ships on fire.


Education

When a Spartan male child was born, they were bathed in wine instead of water. this was to test the child's strength as a man. from that point forward, the child was treated as an adult. When the child reaches age seven, they were ready for their education. They are also put into age groups. The first one is Agelai. Later on, he becomes Agoge, which allows him to have the political rights, that of a Spartan citizen. But the training for the Agoge was very brutal. they had staged fights and many competitive events. Because of all this physical struggle, they won a lot of the Olympic games. After Agoge came Kryteia. These are a select few that gaurded the streets and other areas of the city. Those that ascend beyond this point are given high recognition in the army. They are also given an army of 300 to lead.

Social & Cultural Values

Sparta believed in training children to be warriors, because when they grew up, they would be ready to be full fledged warriors. Also, they believed in a constitution, or a lifestyle that states that everyone is created equal. We, as modern day Americans live in a constitutional society also. only the males got Lycgurus training.


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Olympia Facts:

1. This is the home of the original Olympic Games.
2. The First recorded Olympics were in 776 B.C.E.
3. From then on, they were held every four years.
4. Also, from that point forward, they were held in a different country every time it was held.
5. In ancient Greece, around a mere 10 sports were in the games.
6. Boxing, wrestling, chariot races, and various running events were included.
7. In ancient Greece, women were not allowed to participate, or even watch for that matter.
8. If a women got caught having to do anything to do with the Olympics, she would be put to death.
9. If one won an event, a wreath or olive leaves was worn on their heads, and an olive branch, cut from an olive tree with a golden knife was awarded.
10. The winner would thank Zeus and the Gods for his victory.

Sources:

Ancient Greece and Rome IV (book) pg. 65-68

http://www.megaessays.com/viewpaper/15314.html

http://www.fjkluth.com/sparta.html#Econ

http://elysiumgates.com/~helena/Art.html
http://period8dolzall.tripod.com/olympics.html
http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/aegean/culture/spartaculture.html